Skip navigation

Risk factors for AMD progression

Clinical bottom line

Smoking and being overweight are modifiable risk factors for progression of age-related macular degeneration.


Reference

AREDS Research Group. Risk factors for the incidence of advanced age-related macular degeneration in the age-related eye disease study (AREDS). Ophthalmology 2005 112: 533-539.


Study

Between 1992 and 1998 4757 participants in the AREDS study were enrolled. Participants were aged 55 to 80 years and had acuity of 20/32 in at least one eye. Detailed questionnaires were used to collect demographic and lifestyle history. Progression to neovascular eye disease was measured, as well as progression to centralised geographic atrophy. Participants were randomised to antioxidant and zinc supplementation, or placebo.

Results

Follow up was for 6.3 years. The main risk factors for progression were older age (over 65, or over 70 compared with under 65 years). Modifiable risk factors were smoking more than 10 pack years compared with less than 10 pack years, being overweight compared with normal weight (for central geographical atrophy).

Comment

Smoking and being overweight are modifiable risk factors for progression of age-related macular degeneration.