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Which migraine treatment strategy is most effective?

 

A number of strategies can be used to treat acute migraine attacks, each utilising some part of the evidence base.

For instance, the initial attack could be treated with aspirin or simple analgesic, and if or when that fails, a triptan could be used. That is a step strategy within an attack .

A different approach may be to try aspirin or simple analgesic for a few attacks. It will work for some, but for those for whom it does not work, a triptan may be an alternative treatment. That is a step strategy across attacks , and is probably the strategy most likely to be used in the UK as it is probably seen as the cheapest.

A third way would be to assess the individual patient for the severity of the disorder, and then to treat appropriately: mild disease might be treated with aspirin or simple analgesics, while more severe disease might be treated with a triptan. This would be stratified care .

It just so happens that a randomised controlled trial indicates that stratified care produces the best results [1].

Trial

The trial was randomised, but open-label, and examined multiple migraine attacks for patients with established diagnosis of migraine according to International Headache Society criteria. Patients completed the MIDAS questionnaire [2], that measures lost time in three domains of activity. Patients were assigned a grade of disability from I (little or infrequent disability), grade II (mild or infrequent disability), grade III (moderate disability) to grave IV (severe disability). Patients with grade II-IV disability were included.

Randomisation was to:

Stratified car e: grade II patients received aspirin 800 to 1000 mg plus metoclopramide 10 mg for all six attacks. Those with grade III or IV received zolmitriptan 2.5 mg.

Step care across attacks : Patients treated the first three attacks with aspirin 800 to 1000 mg plus metoclopramide 10 mg. Those without adequate relief took zolmitriptan 2.5 mg for the next three attacks.

Step care within attacks : Patients treated all attacks with aspirin 800 to 1000 mg plus metoclopramide 10 mg first. If adequate relief was not obtained by two hours, they then took zolmitriptan 2.5 mg.

Results

In the three treatments groups, 1062 patients were randomised. Twenty percent of patients withdrew or were lost for various reasons, mostly innocuous. Only 3% withdrew because of an adverse event, and 0.2% because of deteriorating condition. Groups were well balanced.

More patients had a two-hour headache response in the stratified care strategy than for either step care strategy (Figure 1).

 

 

More patients were pain free at two hours in the stratified care strategy than for either step care strategy (Figure 2).

 

 

Adverse events were equally common in all three groups, and were predominantly mild and transient. Adverse event study withdrawals were evenly distributed across the groups.

Comment

Most guidelines would probably accept a step up approach, similar to that of step up across attacks, but with many more steps. Because of the time involved, and because of repeated failure of treatment, some patients simply become disenchanted and seek other forms of treatment.

Treating the appropriate patient appropriately from the beginning is a better bet. It takes less time, is more effective, and is without the "hassle factor" for patient and doctor. This is exactly what evidence-based medicine was supposed to be about, and reading the definition of EBM in the context of this trial is rewarding.

Reference:

  1. RB Lipton et al. Stratified care vs step care strategies for migraine: The disability in strategies of care (DISC) study: a randomized trial. JAMA 2000 284: 2599-2605.
  2. WF Stewart et al. Validity of the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) score in comparison to a diary-based measure in a population sample of migraine sufferers. Pain 2000 88: 41-52.